Course summary

Inspire, empower and educate – three goals to strive towards for success as a teacher. This double degree gives you the tools and skills to achieve these goals.

You will study foundational content for teaching in primary and secondary schools before progressing to significant blocks of in-school teaching experience where you can hone your teaching capabilities.

The course covers curriculum, pedagogy and effective teaching strategies as well as core primary curriculum subjects and the choice of one secondary teaching subject in either English, Mathematics, Geography or Modern History.

Graduates are qualified to teach in both primary and secondary schools, significantly expanding career opportunities. Please note your application must include a personal statement outlining your non-academic capabilities. See education non-academic requirements.

Students complete a Primary major and choose a secondary teaching area from the following specialisations: 

  • English
  • Mathematics
  • Modern History 
  • Geography.

All students also need to successfully complete the Literacy and Numeracy Test for Initial Teacher Education Students (LANTITE) prior to undertaking the first professional experience placement.

Some units in this course are only delivered online. Some online units include on-campus workshops.

Graduate AttributeCourse Learning Outcome
Intellectual rigour

Demonstrate analytical thinking, critical thinking and problem solving skills.

Demonstrate cognitive and technical skills which show broad understanding and depth relevant to the education profession.

Creativity

Demonstrate an ability to identify and solve problems with intellectual independence.

Demonstrate an ability to develop innovative and creative responses to challenges in an educational setting.

Ethical practice

Demonstrate knowledge of ethical, legal and human rights principles in education settings.

Demonstrate an understanding of and commitment to legislative requirements and codes of conduct relevant to the education profession.

Knowledge of a discipline

Demonstrate broad and coherent knowledge and understanding of the relevant curriculum frameworks.

Demonstrate a solid knowledge of the pedagogy of effective educational practice.

Lifelong learning

Demonstrate the capacity for self-reflective learning and critical thinking with responsibility and accountability in professional practice.

Demonstrate skills in maintaining or advancing information and literacy skills to keep currency with pedagogical practice and professional development.

Communication and social skills

Communicate clearly, coherently and independently with exposition of knowledge and ideas in both oral and written forms.

Demonstrate teamwork skills and leadership in professional and learning community settings.

Cultural competence

Demonstrate an understanding of and respect for diversity in others and self identify and apply proactive and inclusive strategies to encourage and support student engagement.

Students complete a program of in-school professional teaching experiences during the course, culminating in an extended in-school development experience, to demonstrate their capabilities as both primary and secondary school teachers.

This course is currently undergoing its five-year reaccreditation with the NSW Education Standards Authority (NESA) and the Queensland College of Teachers (QCT) for national accreditation through the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL).

Usually, Australian teacher qualifications are recognised internationally, but students need to check with potential employers and teacher registration authorities in other countries regarding accreditation requirements.

All Initial Teacher Education students across Australia need to successfully complete the Literacy and Numeracy Test for Initial Teacher Education Students (LANTITE). At Southern Cross University the test needs to be successfully completed prior to undertaking the first professional experience placement.


Course overview

Course code

3207312

Course abbreviation

BA/BEd(Prim/Sec)

Credit points

384

Equivalent units

32

Domestic duration

4 years full-time; 8 years part-time

International duration

4 years full-time

Availability details

Domestic

Location Session UAC code QTAC code
Coffs Harbour 1 N/A N/A
Gold Coast 1 N/A N/A
Lismore 1 N/A N/A
Online 1 N/A N/A

Domestic fees

Commonwealth supported


Course requirements

See the University’s Rules Relating to Awards, in conjunction with the Specific Award Rules listed below.

To be eligible to receive the Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Education (Primary/Secondary), students must complete the equivalent of 32 units (384 credit points), comprising:

  • 7 core units (84 credit points),
  • 10 units (120 credit points) in the Primary major,
  • 7 units (84 credit points) in the English Primary Specialisation,
  • 8 units (96 credit points) in a Secondary major, and
  • both components of the Literacy and Numeracy Test for Initial Teacher Education (LANTITE) as required by the Federal Government.

Permission to undertake a professional experience placement will at all times be at the discretion of the Head of School.

Exit Awards

Students may be eligible to exit with the Bachelor of Educational Studies after completing the equivalent of 24 units (288 credit points).

Students may be eligible to exit with the Associate Degree of Educational Studies after completing the equivalent of 16 units (192 credit points).

Students may be eligible to exit with the Diploma of Educational Studies after completing the equivalent of 8 units (96 credit points).

Inherent Requirements

Inherent Requirements apply to this course as defined on the Student Access and Inclusion website. If you have a disability or health condition which may impact on your ability to meet these requirements please refer to the Student Access and Inclusion website for further information and contact details.


Schedule of units

Title Level of learning Note

Core Units

EDU71002 - Foundations for Education Introductory
EDU10712 - Supporting Learners with Diverse Abilities Intermediate
EDU83003 - Inclusive Teaching Advanced
MAT10002 - Foundations: Mathematics and Numeracy Introductory
EDU10514 - Understanding Children and Young People Introductory
TCH10014 - Professional Experience I: Becoming a Teacher Introductory
TCH30002 - Professional Experience III: Transition to the Profession Advanced

Primary Major

EDU20009 - Mathematics Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU30005 - Mathematics Education: Issues Advanced
HUM10001 - Foundations: Human Society and its Environments Introductory
EDU20008 - Human Society and its Environments: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
SCI10003 - Foundations: Science and Technology Introductory
EDU30006 - Science and Technology Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Advanced
CAR10003 - Foundations: The Arts Introductory
EDU20006 - Creative Arts Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Introductory
HEA10003 - Foundations: Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Introductory
EDU20010 - Personal Development, Health and Physical Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate

Primary Specialisation

Secondary Major


Course progressions

Students should use course progression information to select units specific to their course and enrol in these units using My Enrolment

Title Level of learning Note
Year 1, Session 1
ENG10010 - Foundations: Language & Literacy Introductory
MAT10002 - Foundations: Mathematics and Numeracy Introductory
EDU71002 - Foundations for Education Introductory
CAR10003 - Foundations: The Arts Introductory
Year 1, Session 2
ENG10004 - Foundations: English Introductory
SCI10003 - Foundations: Science and Technology Introductory
HEA10003 - Foundations: Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Introductory
HUM10001 - Foundations: Human Society and its Environments Introductory
Year 2, Session 1
EDU20007 - English Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU20009 - Mathematics Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
ENG00400 - Introduction to Written Texts Introductory
WRI10001 - Introduction to Creative Writing Introductory
Year 2, Session 2
EDU20001 - Literacy, Assessment and Information & Communication Technology Intermediate
EDU10514 - Understanding Children and Young People Introductory
TCH10014 - Professional Experience I: Becoming a Teacher Introductory Note 1 Note 1
ENG00401 - Issues and Themes in Contemporary Writing Intermediate
Year 3, Session 1
EDU20008 - Human Society and its Environments: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU20010 - Personal Development, Health and Physical Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
ENG00406 - Theories of Text and Culture Advanced
TCH20001 - Professional Experience II: Effective Teaching Intermediate Note 1 Note 1
Year 3, Session 2
EDU30004 - English Education: Issues Advanced
EDU20006 - Creative Arts Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Introductory
EDU30005 - Mathematics Education: Issues Advanced
HUM00273 - Borderlands: Identity, Culture and Belonging Advanced
Year 4, Session 1
EDU73002 - Leadership in Primary Schools Advanced
EDU10712 - Supporting Learners with Diverse Abilities Intermediate
EDU30006 - Science and Technology Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Advanced
TCH10174 - Curriculum Specialisation: English I Intermediate
Year 4, Session 2
EDU83003 - Inclusive Teaching Advanced
TCH30002 - Professional Experience III: Transition to the Profession Advanced Note 1 Note 1
TCH10175 - Curriculum Specialisation: English II Advanced
Choose 1 unit from the English Secondary Teaching Subject Optional units

Title Level of learning Note
Year 1, Session 1
ENG10010 - Foundations: Language & Literacy Introductory
EDU71002 - Foundations for Education Introductory
MAT10002 - Foundations: Mathematics and Numeracy Introductory
CAR10003 - Foundations: The Arts Introductory
Year 1, Session 2
ENG10004 - Foundations: English Introductory
HUM10001 - Foundations: Human Society and its Environments Introductory
HEA10003 - Foundations: Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Introductory
SCI10003 - Foundations: Science and Technology Introductory
Year 2, Session 1
EDU20007 - English Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU20009 - Mathematics Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU10514 - Understanding Children and Young People Introductory
MAT10718 - Mathematical Ideas Introductory
Year 2, Session 2
EDU20001 - Literacy, Assessment and Information & Communication Technology Intermediate
TCH10014 - Professional Experience I: Becoming a Teacher Introductory Note 1 Note 1
EDU30004 - English Education: Issues Advanced
MAT71215 - Introductory Algebra and Calculus Introductory
Year 3, Session 1
EDU10712 - Supporting Learners with Diverse Abilities Intermediate
EDU20010 - Personal Development, Health and Physical Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
TCH20001 - Professional Experience II: Effective Teaching Intermediate Note 1 Note 1
MAT10720 - Linear Algebra Intermediate
Year 3, Session 2
EDU73002 - Leadership in Primary Schools Advanced
EDU20006 - Creative Arts Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Introductory
EDU30005 - Mathematics Education: Issues Advanced
MAT10719 - Calculus Intermediate
Year 4, Session 1
EDU20008 - Human Society and its Environments: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU30006 - Science and Technology Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Advanced
EDU01145 - Curriculum Specialisation: Mathematics I Intermediate
MAT10722 - Complex Analysis Advanced
Year 4, Session 2
EDU83003 - Inclusive Teaching Advanced
TCH30002 - Professional Experience III: Transition to the Profession Advanced Note 1 Note 1
EDU01146 - Curriculum Specialisation: Mathematics II Advanced
MAT10721 - Multivariate Calculus and Differential Equations Advanced

Title Level of learning Note
Year 1, Session 1
ENG10010 - Foundations: Language & Literacy Introductory
EDU71002 - Foundations for Education Introductory
MAT10002 - Foundations: Mathematics and Numeracy Introductory
CAR10003 - Foundations: The Arts Introductory
Year 1, Session 2
ENG10004 - Foundations: English Introductory
SCI10003 - Foundations: Science and Technology Introductory
HEA10003 - Foundations: Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Introductory
HUM10001 - Foundations: Human Society and its Environments Introductory
Year 2, Session 1
EDU20007 - English Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU20009 - Mathematics Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
HIS10016 - Making History Introductory
Year 2, Session 2
EDU20001 - Literacy, Assessment and Information & Communication Technology Intermediate
EDU10514 - Understanding Children and Young People Introductory
TCH10014 - Professional Experience I: Becoming a Teacher Introductory Note 1 Note 1
HIS10725 - US History: From Reconstruction to Globalization Introductory
Year 3, Session 1
EDU20008 - Human Society and its Environments: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU20010 - Personal Development, Health and Physical Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU10712 - Supporting Learners with Diverse Abilities Intermediate
HIS10018 - Writing Place: Landscapes, Memory, History Intermediate
Year 3, Session 2
EDU30004 - English Education: Issues Advanced
EDU20006 - Creative Arts Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Introductory
TCH20001 - Professional Experience II: Effective Teaching Intermediate Note 1 Note 1
HIS10726 - Australian Cultural History Intermediate
Year 3, Session 3
HIS00235 - Community History Research Project Advanced
Year 4, Session 1
EDU30006 - Science and Technology Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Advanced
EDU83004 - Web of History Advanced
TCH10007 - Curriculum Specialisation: Human Society and its Environment I Intermediate
EDU73002 - Leadership in Primary Schools Advanced
Year 4, Session 2
EDU83003 - Inclusive Teaching Advanced
TCH30002 - Professional Experience III: Transition to the Profession Advanced Note 1 Note 1
EDU30005 - Mathematics Education: Issues Advanced
TCH10008 - Curriculum Specialisation: Human Society and its Environment II Advanced

Title Level of learning Note
Year 1, Session 1
ENG10010 - Foundations: Language & Literacy Introductory
EDU71002 - Foundations for Education Introductory
MAT10002 - Foundations: Mathematics and Numeracy Introductory
CAR10003 - Foundations: The Arts Introductory
Year 1, Session 2
ENG10004 - Foundations: English Introductory
SCI10003 - Foundations: Science and Technology Introductory
HEA10003 - Foundations: Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Introductory
HUM10001 - Foundations: Human Society and its Environments Introductory
Year 2, Session 1
EDU20007 - English Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU20009 - Mathematics Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
SUR00201 - Environmental Mapping Introductory
GLY00201 - Earth Systems I: The Lithosphere Introductory
Year 2, Session 2
EDU20001 - Literacy, Assessment and Information & Communication Technology Intermediate
EDU10514 - Understanding Children and Young People Introductory
TCH10014 - Professional Experience I: Becoming a Teacher Introductory Note 1 Note 1
WEL73004 - Planning and Delivering Human Services Advanced
Year 3, Session 1
EDU20008 - Human Society and its Environments: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU20010 - Personal Development, Health and Physical Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU10712 - Supporting Learners with Diverse Abilities Intermediate
HUM00272 - Space, Place and Travel Intermediate
Year 3, Session 2
EDU30004 - English Education: Issues Advanced
EDU20006 - Creative Arts Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Introductory
EDU30005 - Mathematics Education: Issues Advanced
TCH20001 - Professional Experience II: Effective Teaching Intermediate Note 1 Note 1
Year 3, Study Period 6
BIO00244 - Protected Area Management Advanced
Year 4, Session 1
TCH10007 - Curriculum Specialisation: Human Society and its Environment I Intermediate
EDU73002 - Leadership in Primary Schools Advanced
EDU30006 - Science and Technology Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Advanced
Year 4, Session 2
EDU83003 - Inclusive Teaching Advanced
TCH10008 - Curriculum Specialisation: Human Society and its Environment II Advanced
TCH30002 - Professional Experience III: Transition to the Profession Advanced Note 1 Note 1
BIO01230 - Principles of Coastal Resource Management Advanced

Title Level of learning Note
Year 1, Session 2
ENG10004 - Foundations: English Introductory
SCI10003 - Foundations: Science and Technology Introductory
HEA10003 - Foundations: Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Introductory
HUM10001 - Foundations: Human Society and its Environments Introductory
Year 2, Session 1
ENG10010 - Foundations: Language & Literacy Introductory
MAT10002 - Foundations: Mathematics and Numeracy Introductory
EDU71002 - Foundations for Education Introductory
CAR10003 - Foundations: The Arts Introductory
Year 2, Session 2
WRI10001 - Introduction to Creative Writing Introductory
ENG00401 - Issues and Themes in Contemporary Writing Intermediate
EDU20001 - Literacy, Assessment and Information & Communication Technology Intermediate
EDU10514 - Understanding Children and Young People Introductory
Year 3, Session 1
EDU20007 - English Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU20009 - Mathematics Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
TCH10014 - Professional Experience I: Becoming a Teacher Introductory Note 1 Note 1
ENG00400 - Introduction to Written Texts Introductory
Year 3, Session 2
EDU20006 - Creative Arts Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Introductory
EDU30005 - Mathematics Education: Issues Advanced
EDU30004 - English Education: Issues Advanced
Choose 1 unit from the English Secondary Teaching Subject Optional units.
Year 4, Session 1
EDU20008 - Human Society and its Environments: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU20010 - Personal Development, Health and Physical Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU10712 - Supporting Learners with Diverse Abilities Intermediate
TCH10174 - Curriculum Specialisation: English I Intermediate
Year 4, Session 2
HUM00273 - Borderlands: Identity, Culture and Belonging Advanced
EDU83003 - Inclusive Teaching Advanced
TCH20001 - Professional Experience II: Effective Teaching Intermediate Note 1 Note 1
TCH10175 - Curriculum Specialisation: English II Advanced
Year 5, Session 1
TCH30002 - Professional Experience III: Transition to the Profession Advanced Note 1 Note 1
EDU73002 - Leadership in Primary Schools Advanced
ENG00406 - Theories of Text and Culture Advanced
EDU30006 - Science and Technology Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Advanced

Title Level of learning Note
Year 1, Session 2
ENG10004 - Foundations: English Introductory
SCI10003 - Foundations: Science and Technology Introductory
HEA10003 - Foundations: Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Introductory
HUM10001 - Foundations: Human Society and its Environments Introductory
Year 1, Session 3
MAT10718 - Mathematical Ideas Introductory
Year 2, Session 1
ENG10010 - Foundations: Language & Literacy Introductory
MAT10002 - Foundations: Mathematics and Numeracy Introductory
EDU71002 - Foundations for Education Introductory
CAR10003 - Foundations: The Arts Introductory
Year 2, Session 2
MAT71215 - Introductory Algebra and Calculus Introductory
EDU20001 - Literacy, Assessment and Information & Communication Technology Intermediate
EDU10514 - Understanding Children and Young People Introductory
Year 3, Session 1
EDU20007 - English Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU20009 - Mathematics Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU20008 - Human Society and its Environments: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
Year 3, Session 2
TCH10014 - Professional Experience I: Becoming a Teacher Introductory Note 1 Note 1
MAT10719 - Calculus Intermediate
EDU20006 - Creative Arts Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Introductory
EDU30004 - English Education: Issues Advanced
Year 4, Session 1
MAT10720 - Linear Algebra Intermediate
EDU20010 - Personal Development, Health and Physical Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU01145 - Curriculum Specialisation: Mathematics I Intermediate
TCH20001 - Professional Experience II: Effective Teaching Intermediate Note 1 Note 1
Year 4, Session 2
MAT10721 - Multivariate Calculus and Differential Equations Advanced
EDU83003 - Inclusive Teaching Advanced
EDU30005 - Mathematics Education: Issues Advanced
EDU01146 - Curriculum Specialisation: Mathematics II Advanced
Year 5, Study Period 1
EDU10712 - Supporting Learners with Diverse Abilities Intermediate
Year 5, Session 1
TCH30002 - Professional Experience III: Transition to the Profession Advanced Note 1 Note 1
EDU30006 - Science and Technology Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Advanced
MAT10722 - Complex Analysis Advanced
EDU73002 - Leadership in Primary Schools Advanced

Title Level of learning Note
Year 1, Session 2
ENG10004 - Foundations: English Introductory
SCI10003 - Foundations: Science and Technology Introductory
HEA10003 - Foundations: Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Introductory
HUM10001 - Foundations: Human Society and its Environments Introductory
Year 2, Session 1
ENG10010 - Foundations: Language & Literacy Introductory
MAT10002 - Foundations: Mathematics and Numeracy Introductory
EDU71002 - Foundations for Education Introductory
CAR10003 - Foundations: The Arts Introductory
Year 2, Session 2
HIS10726 - Australian Cultural History Intermediate
HIS10725 - US History: From Reconstruction to Globalization Introductory
EDU20001 - Literacy, Assessment and Information & Communication Technology Intermediate
EDU10514 - Understanding Children and Young People Introductory
Year 3, Session 1
EDU20007 - English Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU20009 - Mathematics Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
HIS10018 - Writing Place: Landscapes, Memory, History Intermediate
HIS10016 - Making History Introductory
Year 3, Session 2
TCH10014 - Professional Experience I: Becoming a Teacher Introductory Note 1 Note 1
EDU20006 - Creative Arts Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Introductory
EDU30004 - English Education: Issues Advanced
Year 4, Session 1
EDU20008 - Human Society and its Environments: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU20010 - Personal Development, Health and Physical Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
TCH10007 - Curriculum Specialisation: Human Society and its Environment I Intermediate
TCH20001 - Professional Experience II: Effective Teaching Intermediate Note 1 Note 1
Year 4, Session 2
EDU73002 - Leadership in Primary Schools Advanced
EDU83003 - Inclusive Teaching Advanced
EDU30005 - Mathematics Education: Issues Advanced
TCH10008 - Curriculum Specialisation: Human Society and its Environment II Advanced
Year 4, Session 3
HIS00235 - Community History Research Project Advanced
Year 5, Session 1
TCH30002 - Professional Experience III: Transition to the Profession Advanced Note 1 Note 1
EDU30006 - Science and Technology Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Advanced
EDU83004 - Web of History Advanced
EDU10712 - Supporting Learners with Diverse Abilities Intermediate

Title Level of learning Note
Year 1, Session 2
ENG10004 - Foundations: English Introductory
SCI10003 - Foundations: Science and Technology Introductory
HEA10003 - Foundations: Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Introductory
HUM10001 - Foundations: Human Society and its Environments Introductory
Year 2, Session 1
ENG10010 - Foundations: Language & Literacy Introductory
MAT10002 - Foundations: Mathematics and Numeracy Introductory
EDU71002 - Foundations for Education Introductory
CAR10003 - Foundations: The Arts Introductory
Year 2, Session 2
WEL73004 - Planning and Delivering Human Services Advanced
EDU20001 - Literacy, Assessment and Information & Communication Technology Intermediate
EDU10514 - Understanding Children and Young People Introductory
Year 3, Session 1
EDU20007 - English Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU20009 - Mathematics Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
SUR00201 - Environmental Mapping Introductory
GLY00201 - Earth Systems I: The Lithosphere Introductory
Year 3, Session 2
TCH10014 - Professional Experience I: Becoming a Teacher Introductory Note 1 Note 1
BIO01230 - Principles of Coastal Resource Management Advanced
EDU20006 - Creative Arts Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Introductory
EDU83003 - Inclusive Teaching Advanced
Year 4, Study Period 1
EDU10712 - Supporting Learners with Diverse Abilities Intermediate
Year 4, Session 1
EDU20008 - Human Society and its Environments: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
EDU20010 - Personal Development, Health and Physical Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Intermediate
TCH10007 - Curriculum Specialisation: Human Society and its Environment I Intermediate
EDU30006 - Science and Technology Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy Advanced
Year 4, Session 2
TCH20001 - Professional Experience II: Effective Teaching Intermediate Note 1 Note 1
EDU30004 - English Education: Issues Advanced
EDU30005 - Mathematics Education: Issues Advanced
TCH10008 - Curriculum Specialisation: Human Society and its Environment II Advanced
Year 4, Study period 6
BIO00244 - Protected Area Management Advanced
Year 5, Session 1
TCH30002 - Professional Experience III: Transition to the Profession Advanced Note 1 Note 1
HUM00272 - Space, Place and Travel Intermediate
EDU73002 - Leadership in Primary Schools Advanced

Notes

Note 1: This unit involves a Practicum